Map and timeline

Map of Spain

The vast size of Spain was an important factor in shaping the distinctive regional nature of the country’s prints and drawings. Spanish cities evolved as independent artistic centres where different styles developed and individual artists rose to great prominence.

As the location of the court from the mid 1500s, Madrid was the most important city and attracted artists from overseas and across Spain to move there. As such, Madrid became a melting pot of artistic styles. Other cities such as Seville and Valencia were also important artistic centres serving the needs mainly of local patrons and in the case of Seville, exporting art to South America.

Timeline of key events

1561
King Philip II of Spain chooses Madrid as his capital

1563
Foundation stone of the Monastery of El Escorial laid

1588
Spanish Armada defeated

1598
Philip III becomes king of Spain

1603
Peter Paul Rubens first visits Spain

1609
Moriscos expelled from Spain

1621
Philip IV becomes king of Spain

1623
Diego Velázquez appointed Painter to the King

1630s
Palace of the Buen Retiro built in Madrid for Philip IV

1665
Charles II becomes king of Spain

1700
The first Bourbon, Philip V (Philip Duke of Anjou) becomes king of Spain

1701
War of Spanish Succession begins

1744
Founding of the Academy of San Fernando in Madrid

1746
Birth of Francisco de Goya
Ferdinand VI becomes king of Spain

1759
Charles III becomes king of Spain

1762
Giambattista Tiepolo and his sons Domenico and Lorenzo arrive in Madrid

1788
Charles IV becomes king of Spain

1789
Royal Chalcography founded in Madrid

1808
Ferdinand VII becomes king of Spain (March to May)
Joseph Bonaparte appointed king of Spain

1808–14
Peninsular War (Napoleonic invasion of Spain)

1813
Ferdinand VII returned as king of Spain

1828
Death of Francisco de Goya